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暖通空調>期刊目次>2022年>第8期

西安地區老年人熱適應研究

Adaptive thermal comfort of the elderly in Xi’an

鄭武幸[1][2] 邵 騰[1] 車 棟[1] 劉 煜[1] 周方樂[3]
[1]西北工業大學 [2]西部綠色建筑國家重點實驗室 [3]西安榮華集團有限公司

摘要:

為全面掌握西安地區老年人不同氣候條件下熱舒適規律與需求,以4家養老機構60歲以上健康老年人為研究對象,采取熱舒適現場主觀問卷與客觀物理環境測試的方法,獲取冬季、過渡季和夏季老年人熱感覺、熱可接受度及室內外熱環境參數等指標,回收843份有效問卷,通過統計學相關分析發現:過渡季老年人服裝調節及熱感覺隨溫度變化最敏感;冬季、過渡季和夏季中性溫度依次為19.4、22.6、23.1 ℃,全年中性溫度為20.3 ℃;80%和90%可接受溫度范圍分別為13.8~30.5 ℃和17.2~27.0 ℃;建立的熱適應模型與ASHRAE 55和西安地區青年人模型存在顯著差異,且溫度越高,這種差異越大,這是老年人心理、生理及行為適應3種方式綜合作用的結果。研究成果可為我國寒冷地區老年人居住建筑室內熱環境設計標準制定提供參考。

關鍵詞:熱適應;老年人;熱感覺;熱可接受;熱適應模型;西安

Abstract:

To derive deeper insight into thermal comfort and demands of the elderly in different climate conditions in Xi’an, the authors survey healthy elderly people over 60 years old and adopt field study methods of subjective questionnaire of thermal comfort and objective physical environment tests. The research is carried out in winter, transitional season and summer, and obtains 843 valid questionnaires, including the main information on human thermal sensation, thermal acceptability, and indoor and outdoor thermal environment parameters. Through statistical analysis methods, the authors find that the clothing regulation and thermal sensation in the transitional season are the most sensitive with temperature changes. The neutral temperatures in winter, transitional season and summer are 19.4 ℃, 22.6 ℃ and 23.1 ℃, respectively, and 20.3 ℃ for the whole year. 80% and 90% acceptable temperature ranges are 13.8 to 30.5 ℃ and 17.2 to 27.0 ℃. The established adaptive thermal comfort model for the elderly in Xi’an is significantly different with that in ASHRAE 55 and the youth’s model in Xi’an, which shows the higher the temperature, the greater the difference between them. The result is determined by the particularity of psychological, physiological and behavioral adaptation of the elderly. The findings can provide a reference for establishing the design standard of indoor thermal environment for residential buildings of the elderly in cold zone of China.

Keywords:thermaladaptation;theelderly;thermalsensation;thermalacceptability;adaptivethermalcomfortmodel;Xi’an

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